Guide to Real Photo Postcards This guide is meant to aid the collector in identifying and dating real photo postcards, and to act as a reminder that it is impossible to do so with great accuracy. Although real photo postcards were made in a variety of ways, they hold one identifiable feature in common. The tonalities of photos are completely continuous to the eye producing true greys, for they are created by the reaction of individual photosensitive molecules to light rather than the transfer of ink from a plate. In printed images the grey areas are usually made up of black marks that are spaced to create the optical illusion of greys. Though most of us today are familiar with the concept of photo grain, this is mostly because we have experienced very large prints made from small 35mm negatives. But even here the effect is more of a softening of detail than a observable texture. Early real photo postcards are small by their very nature and since most were contact printed, not enlarged, there is no visible texture. Collotypes, which provide the finest detail of all printing methods are sometimes confused with real photo postcards. But even collotypes will exhibit a discernible grain when magnified.
Maximum PC – January 2018
I found this a fascinating activity over more than a 10 year period. But also time-consuming, frustrating and tedious! Before the s, colour printing mostly required the accurate registration of multiple single colour images in order to build up the final full colour result, and necessitated even more dedicated effort than the procedures that evolved post The history of colour photography has been thoroughly documented by various authors e.
That book, or similar, should be consulted for the earliest processes.
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Taxonomy[ edit ] Comparative image of the red wolf C. In , Atkins and Dillon conducted a study on the brains of canids and confirmed the basal characteristics of the red wolf. In addition, Wilson et al. However, these conclusions were disputed,   and MSW3  listed them both in as subspecies of the gray wolf. This study analyzed 48, single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs and found no evidence for a unique eastern wolf or red wolf species.
While it is true that many SNPs were examined, whether loci important to red wolf genetic variation were actually identified and analyzed for example, nuclear DNA was not compared in the SNP analysis remains unclear. Second, the study sampled modern red wolf specimens, and not historic red wolf specimens from prior to when extensive hybridization with coyotes is known to have taken place , which obfuscates the reliability of the study’s findings.
This is important because using historic red wolf genetic material would have created a baseline genetic profile for the species against which to test the modern captive-bred specimens. It is common knowledge that the captive-bred red wolves are likely slightly hybridized, but this is a separate issue from interpreting their species origin as due to hybridization. Third, the authors lumped eastern wolf specimens which critics from Trent University warn are of unverified origin with other Great Lakes wolf specimens, and did not test them separately, which again obfuscated any genetic differences that may have been present.
The controversy over the eastern wolf’s origins is not considered by the scientific community to be laid to rest, although it may be synonymous with the red wolf. The Florida black wolf Canis rufus floridanus Maine to Florida  has been extinct since and Gregory’s wolf Canis rufus gregoryi south-central United States  was declared functionally extinct in the wild by The Texas red wolf Canis rufus rufus , the third subspecies, was also functionally extinct in the wild by , although that status was changed to critically endangered when captive-bred red wolves from Texas were reintroduced in eastern North Carolina in The purpose of this project was to determine whether the female western coyotes are capable of bearing hybrid western gray wolf-coyote pups, as well as to test the hybrid theory surrounding the origin of the eastern and red wolves by comparing them to both.
List of inventors
In the first few months the British suffered many reverses. Patriotism ran high in these days of Empire, and Queen Victoria sent consignments of chocolate to the troops wishing them a Happy New Year for January 1st, The Boers gave the area the name of Suffolk Hill in recognition of their courage. They left for South Africa on February 11th. They joined the Suffolk Regiment at Middleburg.
It is odd that three instruction sheets for Velox paper, dating from the s and s, give no times of development for Velox paper. “How to make good pictures”, a Kodak book published in , suggests 25 to 30 seconds for Medium and Vigorous grades of Velox paper, and 40 to 50 seconds for Soft and Special grades of Velox paper.
Crossing the Irish Sea by the ‘Short Sea route’. One of the shortest crossings between Mainland Britain and Ireland is that between Portpatrick and Donaghadee. This is about 22 miles and the settlement of Scots in Ulster created traffic. The main traffic was not mail, but cattle on the hoof. John Smeaton improved the harbour at Portpatrick. In John Rennie senior was commissioned to examine improvements to the last-named.
Burns introduced steam vessels on the Glasgow to Belfast run and captured most of the traffic. In Burns stopped at Greenock to provide the Mail service and the mail stations at Portpatrick and Donaghadee were closed. The LNWR provided a train which left London in the evening and reached Belfast late in the following afternoon, but the service only ran on two days per week. The first Princess Victoria perfoprmed the crossding in 2 h 15 min.
The Princess Maud was the first turbine-driven ship. The MR opened a new harbour at Heysham and provided competition, but all of the northern ferry routes became part of the LMS. The administrration in Northern Ireland favoured the Stranraer route and the Post Office permitted a first class sleeping car to be attached to the down Wset Coast Postal.
The Princess Margaret was introduced in
A History: ’s Word of the Year
Questions and Answers Evolution and Early Distribution: The evolution of carnivorans appears to have been a gradual process that happened in both North America and Eurasia, making it difficult to infer when it all started. Nonetheless, taxonomists those who study how species are related to each other currently think that the carnivorans evolved from animals called miacids, which were small tree-living mammals that looked similar to modern-day civets.
It is an opportunity for us to reflect on the language and ideas that represented each year. So, take a stroll down memory lane to remember all of our past Word of the Year selections. Change It wasn’t trendy , funny, nor was it coined on Twitter , but we thought change told a real story about how our users defined Unlike in , change was no longer a campaign slogan. But, the term still held a lot of weight.
Here’s an excerpt from our Word of the Year announcement in The national debate can arguably be summarized by the question: In the past two years, has there been enough change? Has there been too much? Meanwhile, many Americans continue to face change in their homes, bank accounts and jobs. Only time will tell if the latest wave of change Americans voted for in the midterm elections will result in a negative or positive outcome.
Tergiversate This rare word was chosen to represent because it described so much of the world around us. Tergiversate means “to change repeatedly one’s attitude or opinions with respect to a cause, subject, etc. And so, we named tergiversate the Word of the Year.
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Studio set at Blists Hill Museum. Part of the camera back revolved rather like that of a Mamiya RB67 enabling portrait or landscape format. Having focused on the subject with a brass wheel and rack arrangement the Teak plate holder would be inserted into wooden grooves in the camera back which would then push the focussing screen further along the grooves. The plate holder had then taken the place of the screen and you would be ready to take your first photograph having pulled out the dark slide.
One plate holder was big enough to take three exposures by moving the plate holder further along the grooves each time though taking three exposures of one sitter would be frowned upon by the branch manager and, if it occurred too often, might be reported to the Regional?
We estimate mate preferences using wood fibers, dated by velox paper was a definate prewar manufacturer. Dating and learning everything new. By identifying the book, paper its own numbering system, or paper without a paper sample shows how expired paper was manufactured until
Between the Wars While new Congressional Acts would lift the tariffs imposed against foreign producers of postcards the damage was already done. By the postcard market had bottomed out as cards were dumped at discount prices, and poorer quality cards were already beginning to become dominant. The First World War would add unforeseen circumstances into play that would further hurt the sale of cards. These new unexpected elements superseded the market forces that normally drove card production, taking many important decisions out of the hands of publishers.
Many of the resources required by printers suddenly became difficult to find or denied to them completely as they were diverted towards war production. Even so postcards continued to be manufactured and purchased for they played an important role in keeping up wartime morale, and were also an important tool in spreading propaganda. The war years themselves really need to be looked at as a closed interim period in regard to postcards, for the surrounding events did not follow any sort of historical progression.
While the new circumstances had great influence on postcards, they just suddenly appeared and then ended.
Photo Paper Branding. Knowledge and study of the different brandings is useful in dating photo paper. The manufacturer’s branding is that wallpaper-like printing across the back of a photo. * If the back of the photo has the three line printing ‘Kodak/Velox/Paper,’ the photo dates circa ss. * The printing ‘A Kodak Paper’ was.
Guide to Identifying and Dating Photographs. Pages. Guide to Identifying and Dating Photographs. Uploaded by. David Cycleback. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email. Guide to Identifying and Dating Photographs. Download. Guide to Identifying and Dating Photographs.